AFT Impulse evaluates transient and water hammer events, caused by pump trips, sudden valve closures and various ESD conditionsAFT Impulse provides a practical tool for the piping systems engineer to address the complex subject of liquid piping systems waterhammer and surge transient events. AFT Impulse incorporates an integral steady-state solver to calculate the initial conditions and seamlessly transfer these to the transient solver. Based on the same, proven solver in AFT Fathom, steady-state solutions are determined using a modified Newton-Raphson matrix interation. AFT Impulse's transient flow solution engine is based on the Method of Characteristics, which utilizes time steps and pipe section lengths that are an integral fraction of the wave speed. This permits a direct solution of each time step, making AFT Impulse highly efficient.